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Batteries store direct current electrical energy in chemical form for later use, there are many classifications for the batteries according to their chemistry, construction, and applications.
Chemistry classification:The batteries divided into two major groups based on the types of chemical components used in acidic or alkaline media:-
- Nickel Cadmium batteries (Ni/Cd) usually called alkaline batteries. Use Nickel and cadmium alloy electrodes, and alkaline electrolyte e.g. Potassium Hydroxide.
- Lead Acid batteries (LA), usually called Acidic batteries. Use Lead and Lead Sulphate electrodes and Sulphuric acid electrolyte.
Construction classification:The batteries divided also into two major groups based on its construction:-
- Vented batteries, also called open batteries with removable caps.
- Sealed batteries with valve regulator, usually used for lead acid batteries (Valve Regulated Lead Acid -VRLA). The VRLA batteries classified to AGM or Gel groups based on the electrolyte media if it is Glass mate or Silica Gel.
Applications classification:The battery is an essential part in many applications and equipment:-
- Automotive applications e.g. Cars, Buses, Tractors, vansâ€¦.etc.
- Traction applications e.g. lifting platforms, Electric tractors, forklifts, electric vehiclesâ€¦.etc.
- Stand-by applications e.g. UPS, Telecommunication systems,IT, utilities, general electronics and special applications required deep discharge like renewable energy systems.